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Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.

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avatar Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
July 02, 2009 11:09PM
This could be a reason why you won't find the biography of Chief Tenaya, the founder of Ahwahnee in Yosemite Valley. He was the original chief of Yosemite.

Biography of Chief Tenaya of Yosemite

Chief Tenaya
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Chief Tenaya (died 1853) was a Native American chief of the Yosemite Valley people in California. Tenaya's father was the chief of the Ahwahneechee (or Awahnichi),[1] which means "people of the Ahwahnee" (Yosemite Valley). The Ahwahneechee had become a tribe distinct from the other tribes in the area. Lafayette Bunnell, the doctor of the Mariposa Battalion, wrote that "Ten-ie-ya was recognized, by the Mono tribe, as one of their number, as he was born and lived among them until his ambition made him a leader and founder of the Pai-Ute colony in Ah-wah-ne."[1]

The Ahwahneechee occupied Yosemite Valley until a sickness destroyed most of them. The few Ahwahneechee left Yosemite Valley and joined the Mono Lake Paiutes in the eastern Sierra Nevada. Tenaya's father married a Mono Paiute woman and Tenaya was born from that union. Tenaya grew up amongst his mother's people and married a Mono Paiute woman and had three children. Fifty years later a medicine man advised Tenaya that it was time to return to the beautiful Yosemite Valley because the sickness was gone. Tenaya took about 200 people back into Yosemite Valley. The Ahwahneechee were a powerful tribe feared by the surrounding Miwok tribes. The surrounding tribes called them Yosemite meaning "they are killers."[2]

By 1851, conflicts between the non-indigenous miners and the Native Americans in the Sierra started to increase. The state of California decided to send the Natives to reservations. The Mariposa Brigade was formed to carry out the relocation. Chief Tenaya agreed to move to the Fresno Reservation, instead of the destruction of his entire band. Many of his band left Yosemite Valley instead of following Tenaya. As they approached the Fresno reservation, they fled back to the Yosemite Valley. The Brigade then re-entered the Valley, captured Tenaya's sons, and killed his youngest son. Tenaya then agreed to go back to the reservation.

By the summer of 1851, Tenaya grew tired of the reservation. He gave his pledge that he would not disturb any non-indigenous people. However, in 1852, a group of prospectors were killed in the Valley. Tenaya and his band fled to join the Mono Paiutes. He returned to the Valley in 1853. He was stoned to death in a dispute with the Mono Paiutes over stolen horses. The remaining survivors who were not killed were taken back to Mono Lake and absorbed into the Mono Lake Paiute population.


Here are some other facts.

1. Owahnee was a place in Paiute legend that was destroyed and the people left. You can see that in the book "The Story of Inyo" by Chalfant.

2. At that time Paiutes and Miwoks were enemies.

2. There are reports of "Diggers" coming into Mono Lake Paiute area and then being attacked and killed for trespassing. So if Tenaya's father was a Miwok he, and the few remaining Ahwahnees would have been killed if they were not a Paiute or Mono band.

4. It was the Miwoks who helped capture Chief Tenaya and his band the second time causing the death of Tenaya's son. The Miwoks were the ones who assisted the Mariposa Battalion find Tenaya and his people and blocked their escape.

5. Today that Miwok chief and army scout who captured Chief Tenaya and his people is honored in the Yosemite Indian Village behind the Indian Museum. His name was Kau'tcitti or Cow'chitty (Captain Lewis). Not one mention of Chief Tenaya at the Yosemite Indian Village.

6. Dr. Lafayette H. Bunnell wrote that Chief Tenaya and his people spoke Paiute and Mono. Which are similar languages. Miwok is not.

7. The surviving people of Chief Tenaya's band were taken back to Mono Lake? So who are the "Yosemite Miwoks"? They are the descendents of James Savage's workers and the descendents of the Indian scouts who helped the Mariposa Battalion. That is Chief Bautista, Cypriano and Cow'chitty. The chiefs signed the Fremont and Barbour treaties before the Mariposa Battalion went into Yosemite to capture Tenaya. So they are not the same people as the Ahwahnees.
avatar Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
July 02, 2009 11:14PM
Sign located in the Yosemite National Park's Miwok Indian Village.



Sign up close:


Kau'tcitti (Cow'chitty)

Also the Indian photographed on the sign is Tom Hutchings a Mono Paiute now being called a Miwok. His descendents are in the Paiute tribe today.

Also NO mention of Chief Tenaya at the Yosemite Indian Village, which btw is patterned after a Paiute village in photos taken by Eadweard Muybridge.

From The Discovery of the Yosemite, by Dr. Lafayette H. Bunnell;

Page 223

Major Savage sent Cow-chitty, a brother of Pon-watch-ee, the chief of the
Noot-choo band, whose village we surprised before we discovered the
valley, as chief of scouts. He was accompanied by several young warriors,
selected because they were all familiar with the Sierra Nevada trails and
the territory of the Pai-utes, where it was thought probable the
expedition would penetrate.

Captain Boling had in his report to Major Savage, complained of the
incapacity of Sandino as guide, and expressed the opinion that he stood in
awe of Ten-ie-ya. By letter, the Major replied, and particularly advised
Captain Boling that implicit confidence could be placed in Cow-chitty and
his scouts, as the sub-chief was an old enemy of Ten-ie-ya, and was
esteemed for his sagacity and wood-craft, which was superior to that of
any Indian in his tribe. Captain Boling had improved in health and
strength, and concluded to venture on his contemplated expedition over the
mountains. He at once ordered preparations to be made. A camp-guard was
detailed, and a special supply train fitted out. All was ready for a start
in the morning. During the evening Captain Boling consulted our new guide [Cow’chitty]
as to what trail would be best to follow to the Mono pass and over the
mountains. Cow-chitty had already learned from our Po-ho-no scouts and
those of his own tribe, the extent of our explorations, and had had a long
talk with Sandino as well as with Ten-ie-ya. The mission Indian and the
old chief tried to make the new guide believe that the Yosemites had gone
over the mountains to the Monos. Indian-like, he had remained very grave
and taciturn, while the preparations were going on for the expedition.
Now, however, that he was consulted by Captain Boling, he was willing
enough to give his advice, and in a very emphatic manner declared his
belief to the Captain that Ten-ie-ya's people were not far off; that they
were either hiding in some of

Page 224

the rocky canyons in the vicinity of the valley, or in those of the
Tuolumne.

page 231

They had been anxious to embroil us in trouble by drawing us into the
canyons of the Tuolumne [Hetch Hetchy], where were some Pai-utes wintering in a valley
like Ah-wah-ne.


Then from this book:

Big Jim Savage; Blonde King of the Indians and Discoverer of Yosemite

By Ben T. Traywick

World Renowned Author

Chapter 12

Chief Tenieya had tried every trick imaginable to prevent the white soldiers from going in to the mountains. Thwarted at every trick he had even tried to escape a number of times. Finally, tired of Tenieya’s and Sandino’s repeated efforts to convince the white men that the Yosemites had joined the Monos over the mountains. Captain Boling picked himself a new guide, called Cowchitty. The new guide was an old enemy of Tenieya’s Yosemites and was a sub-chief of the Nootchee tribe.
Boling consulted his new guide as to the whereabouts of the Yosemites and how to find them.
Cowchitty considered the captain thoughtfully for a moment then replied, “Tenieya’s people near about; hide in rocks, brush, canyons. May be in valley, may be in Tuolumne. We go higher in mountains; horses no can go.”
The captain believed that Cowchitty’s advice was good, so he left the horses and supply train behind. They climbed thru Pyweack Canyon and took the trail on the north cliff, marching on foot and carrying provision for three days.
Not one of the white men could see any sign of the Yosemite’s trail that Cowchitty followed thru the mountains, over snow up to ten feet deep, over rocks and wind swept ridges. Bunnell later wrote that Boling remarked, “I could follow the trail of a flying woodpecker more easily than that one that Cowchitty reads.”
Soon the guide approached Boling and said, “We not far from their camp. Trail leads to head of Pyweack where Paiute and Mono trail goes to valley of Tuolumne. If they not at lake, Yosemites have crossed mountains. Better you send out scouts now to catch Yosemite guards that watch valley trail.”
Boling nodded and selected his strongest and fastest runners. He sent these scouts out in pairs, one Nootchee Indian warrior and one white soldier. They moved out to clear the trail of guards and the rest of the column moved slowly and steadily upward.
Late that day they came upon the guide, Cowchitty, sitting on a log waiting for them. He had been scouting far in advance of the main party. When Boling came up the guide pointed to a tall, granite peak and said, “Rancheria”. There upon the shores of a beautiful lake lay the Indian village, nestled at the base of a cliff. Certainly no white man had ever gazed upon the lake before.


Bear Head



Edited 4 time(s). Last edit at 07/02/2009 11:46PM by Yosemite_Indian.
avatar Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
July 03, 2009 12:05AM
Here is more from The Discovery of the Yosemite from Dr. Lafaytte H. Bunnell:

Page 219

"Though seemingly unimpressed by their sublime surroundings, their figures
and comparisons, when not objectionable, were beautiful, because natural.
The Pai-ute and Mono Colony originally established by Ten-ie-ya, was the
result of a desire to improve their physical condition. They were attached
to this valley as a home. The instinctive attraction that an Indian has
for his place of nativity is incomprehensible; it is more than a religious
sentiment; it is a passion.


and:

PAGE 272

"Old Ten-ie-ya, and his band, were never recipients of friendly favors from
Savage, nor was he in very good standing with the agent. This was known to
the other chiefs, and they...

Page 273

frequently taunted him with his downfall. The old chief chafed under the
contemptuous treatment of those who had once feared him and applied to the
sub-agent or farmer for permission to go back to his mountain home."


More documentation that Chief Tenaya and his band were Mono Paiutes, and when Chief Tenaya was captured the other "chiefs", Cypriano, Cow'chitty, Bautista and others who once "FEARED HIM" now were taunting him at the reservation. Showing that the Miwoks were not Ahwahneechees and Yosemite Valley Indians. That they were not "friendly" with each other. Why were the Miwok chiefs taunting Tenaya and afraid of him if they were the same people? That is because the Miwoks were not Yosemite Valley Indians, but today Yosemite National Park has the same people who once feared and taunted Tenaya as the original Ahwahneechees.



Bear Head



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 07/03/2009 12:08AM by Yosemite_Indian.
Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
August 17, 2009 12:20PM
This is one of the saddest of all injustices to native peoples. The Discovery of the Yosemite book by Bunnell is very interesting because it does tell exactly what happened. I have to agree that the Park needs to research things a little better and make sure the true people are honored properly since Tenaya did put a curse to white man in the valley because of their actions. Spending time in the valley and especially near Tenaya canyon/lake, I always have complete respect for his spirit and absolute sympathy for the sad condition of humanity. It would be one step forward to try to apologize by setting the record straight. Maybe he would rest.



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 08/21/2009 01:56PM by mugstump.
Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
August 17, 2009 08:24PM
Quote
mugstump
... It would be one step forward to try to apologize but setting the record straight. Maybe he would rest.

Apologizing for past generations does nothing.
The best that we can do is learn from the past and teach ourselves and our youngsters to be the best that they can.
avatar Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
August 17, 2009 09:21PM
I'm not sure what Yosemite_Indian is trying to accomplish, I suspect it's a lot more than historical accuracy.
avatar Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
August 17, 2009 10:11PM
Quote
Vince
I'm not sure what Yosemite_Indian is trying to accomplish, I suspect it's a lot more than historical accuracy.

Because the United States IS a melting pot, a majority of people are not going to understand what a struggle it is to retain one's cultural identity while existing within the homogeny. This is a great country, but it is made even greater by the contributions of history, language, arts,etc. made by its unique blend of citizens.

I do not believe that it requires a shroud of conspiracy to desire to hold fast to one's ancestral roots -- especially when they are the original roots of this land we all like to think of as home.
avatar Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
August 17, 2009 11:03PM
Quote
Bee
Quote
Vince
I'm not sure what Yosemite_Indian is trying to accomplish, I suspect it's a lot more than historical accuracy.

Because the United States IS a melting pot, a majority of people are not going to understand what a struggle it is to retain one's cultural identity while existing within the homogeny. This is a great country, but it is made even greater by the contributions of history, language, arts,etc. made by its unique blend of citizens.

I do not believe that it requires a shroud of conspiracy to desire to hold fast to one's ancestral roots -- especially when they are the original roots of this land we all like to think of as home.

I agree. But should we take this one person's word for it as far as who's who?
avatar Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
August 17, 2009 11:48PM
Quote
Vince

I agree. But should we take this one person's word for it as far as who's who?

Not even the "experts" expect to win over the masses by opinion, only. While I find the posted documentation interesting and riveting at times; I would certainly not consider myself informed enough on the subject/controversy to take a stand, agree, disagree,or otherwise.
avatar Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
August 18, 2009 10:19AM
I agree with Bee. While Yosemite_Indian has produced lots of documentation it's too bad we are missing the other side of the story. I suspect there is a lot of truth to what Yosemite_Indian has come up with but I would still like to hear and see documentation supporting apposing points of view, whether it be from the NPS or elsewhere. The discussion to date has been more of a one person blog than anything. He (or she) was probably hoping for a more spirited discourse on the subject of Indian historical accuracy.

Jim
Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
August 22, 2009 06:13AM
The book referred to by Yosemite_Indian written by Bunnell is the defining(only) written record on the subject because as the Doctor travelling with the Mariposa Battalion he hung out with Tenaya when the Mariposa Battalion captured him and two of his sons (the 3 brothers and lost arrow are named for these sons - see stories in the book Discovery of Yosemite) He tried to learn the meaning of the language and made efforts to communicate with Tenaya - The reason why it's an issue is because the Miwok were mortal enemies of Pai-ute people and the Park Service unwittingly recognizes the enemy of people they are attempting to honor. It is a simple matter of setting the record straight with some research and some sign changes. Throughout this country's history there has been a problem with the anglos and indigenous people's communication and since this country considers indigenous people "wards of the nation" they have a responsibility to preserve and protect what is left of their dignity. It is a small thing to correct the written word and would go a long way to heal broken spirits.



Edited 2 time(s). Last edit at 08/22/2009 09:23AM by mugstump.
avatar Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
August 22, 2009 06:24AM
I distrust everything, including skepticism.



The cure for a fallacious argument is a better argument, not the suppression of ideas.
-- Carl Sagan
avatar Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
August 22, 2009 06:44PM
That is when you do research and find the truth.
avatar Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
August 22, 2009 07:15PM
Quote
Frank Furter
I distrust everything, including skepticism.

Quote
Yosemite_Indian
That is when you do research and find the truth.

Here's some research dating to publication in 1877:
http://www.yosemite.ca.us/library/powers/
avatar Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
August 22, 2009 07:49PM
Great find.

Stephen Powers was a journalist who worked for the Overland Monthly.

He took some time off and traveled around California to write his series on Indians of California. Stephen Powers spent about A WEEK, maybe less, around Stanislaus, Merced and Mariposa Counties for his "story" about the Indians of that area. He spent a very limited time in the area. He went there around 1867.

Now here the cons to his writings.

1. Powers WAS an amateur when it came to writing about California Indians. He was a journalist, not an ethnologist. Some might say that about Bunnell, BUT Bunnell lived in the area.

2. Powers didn't live in the area and only went to VISIT Yosemite for a short limited time.

3. Powers didn't know the local languages, in Bunnell's book Bunnell writes that James Savage, spoke the local dialects of the Indians in the foothills. In Sam Ward Gold Rush book it is documented that Savage spoke the Poyotanee dialect...which is the modern day Miwok. Plus that Chief Bautista was Savage's friend, the early Southern Miwok leader.

4. Powers was UNAWARE that in 1853, over a decade before, that Chief Tenaya's band was decimated and THAT THE SURVIVORS were taken back to Mono Lake to be re-aborsbed into the Paiute population once again. So that meant that Powers was talking to Savages, and the white's Indian workers, not the original Yosemite Indians.

5. It was Powers who first coined the term "Mewoc" or Miwok for Savage's Indians. Before that they called themselves Wallas...and where did Wallas come from? That will be explained later. In every reference after that Powers is credited for the term "Miwok".

6. Powers never met Chief Tenaya or his band,How could he when they had already been absorbed in the Mono Lake Paiute population, the only person who did and wrote everything we know about Tenaya was Dr. Bunnell, who lived in the area, met Tenaya, knew James Savage and wrote his book saying that the Yosemite Indians were Paiutes.



Edited 2 time(s). Last edit at 08/22/2009 07:51PM by Yosemite_Indian.
avatar Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
August 23, 2009 12:28AM
The interesting thing that I found about Power’s work is his documentation of the geographical distribution of tribal families by their language groupings. The more that I delve into this, the more convinced I become that the Paiutes which the Mariposa Batallion found were not the “original” Yosemite Valley inhabitants.

If one views these groupings on a map as derived by Kroeber:
http://www.californiaprehistory.com/tribmap.html
one notes that the family of which the Paiutes are a part wrapped around southern extent of the Sierra and came up the western side to the area around present-day Kings Canyon. The foothill tribes in the area of Yosemite were the Miwoks.

Given the geography of the Sierra Nevada, one would rationally expect it to have been originally populated by peoples coming from the west, up the gentle elevation staircase rather then over the precipitous eastern crest. It would seem to be extremely disingenuous to argue that Yosemite Valley was “first” populated by tribes coming from the east rather than those from the Central Valley working their way up the rivers which drained the mountains.

Even your own argument about the Yosemite Paiutes claims that they were a “warrior renegade band” which one can easily envision moving up already established trading routes into the mountains and driving out the valley’s original “docile and friendly Miwoks”:
http://yosemitenews.info/forum/read.php?1,16867

There is no contradiction here. Yes, the Paiutes were inhabiting Yosemite Valley when the white man came, but they were not the original inhabitants of the valley.
avatar Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
August 23, 2009 06:24AM
There were ancient pre-contact Great Basin (Uto-Aztecan) Petroglyphs - Pictoglyphs in Yosemite.

Paiutes in Yosemite in olden times

There was Obsidian found in Yosemite as far as El Portal which came from Paiute Mono Lake found at ancient sites.

The bodies found at ancient gravesites at El Portal were covered in red ocrhe, which was used by Paiutes and came from the Great Basin also in burials. Like bodies found in Paiute areas also in the same position.

There was Owens Valley pottery found in the graves. Owens Valley pottery only comes from the Bishop Paiute tribes. The graves were ancient.

The oldest basket found in Northwestern Yosemite was a Paiute burden basket.

There were groves of Pinon trees that only grow in the eastern side in area where Paiutes lived, found in northern Yosemite. They were hundreds of years old.

During that time no Miwoks entered the Paiute area without being attacked and killed and there are documented reports of that. So no Miwoks could have entered Mono Lake without being attacked and killed. Miwoks and Paiutes were also fighting before whites entered the area.

Miwoks were BROUGHT UP to the foothills from the San Joaquin Valley floor during the Gold Rush to work and dig gold for whites. That is also documented in many, many books.



See that "bite" taken out of that Uto-Aztecan area on this map with the "Miwoks" have a like a 'foot'...that is YOSEMITE. That was drawn later on. If you go from the Monachees(Monos) to the Mono Lake Paiutes and fill in that area...that is where Yosemite is. Mono Paiute Yosemite.

Chief Tenaya was documented to be a warrior and fought many battles. The Mono Paiutes were to the right, The Monos to the bottom and the Owen Valley Paiutes who were also friends to the tip of the southwest and traded. By looking at the map you can see that Yosemite was surrounded by Uto-Aztecan people (Mono - Mono Paiutes). That would leave only the Miwoks who could have been the people that Chief Tenaya would have fought with. So who was Tenaya fighting? Not his own people the Mono Paiutes who bragged about his war exploits.

Chief Tenaya could not speak Miwok or James Savage would've been able to communicate with Tenaya. Tenaya spoke Paiute. Tenaya was an old man when the Mariposa Battalion entered Yosemite Valley.

Explain all of these points?



Edited 5 time(s). Last edit at 08/23/2009 06:41AM by Yosemite_Indian.
avatar Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
August 23, 2009 10:11PM
You miss my point:
I think that you are going to have a very difficult time convincing objective, rational people that the inhabitants of the western Sierra region sat around after the last Ice Age waiting for the mountain glaciers to melt sufficiently so that the Great Basin peoples could traverse the Sierra Crest and discover Yosemite, Hetch Hetchy, and the other valleys that were easily accessible from their neighborhood.
avatar Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
August 24, 2009 01:49AM
szalkowski and you believe the Miwoks did if it was that cold? Do you believe that Miwoks could live in Yosemite during the Ice Age or Little Ice Age? What proof is there that Miwoks were even there? There is no evidence left that has been excavated that Miwoks or any other tribe was there besides Numic-Great Basin Indians. You have to go with what the earliest human evidence that was deposited in the area was, and the evidence goes directly back to the Numic culture, in and around Yosemite. There were Monos on the other side of mountains. Paiutes had trails all over the place one being around Lone Pine that went into California. You can even see the pattern in the Indian map.

Now if you mean there was a time when the Sierra Nevada were uninhabitable that is also told in our myths. Remember that Chief Tenaya's father came from Ohwahnee or Ahwahnee. The people had to leave the area after it became to harsh and disease spread. That is why they left their mountain home and moved in with the Mono Paiutes on the eastern plain, and that is where Tenaya was born until it was OK to return back into the mountains.

Now you have heard that?

Now where is the Miwok story? Where is the Miwok materials proving they were there? Where they even in Central California?



Edited 2 time(s). Last edit at 08/24/2009 02:01AM by Yosemite_Indian.
Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
August 23, 2009 06:08AM
All over the world people have squabbled over the millennium. Some pushed, some pulled. Territory demarcations have always changed. It is understood the people who have possession win the battle. Battle rules living in survival mode are international. Whatever it takes to live and take care of family. Nothing has really changed today from thousands of years ago except the methods we choose to destroy our enemies. Mortal enemies battle and try to beat the opposition. Darwin's theory "Survival of the fittest" is based on the most adaptable people survive. That is why anglos are the victors in this country. Since we are not the original inhabitants, does this negate our rights? If so, a lot of indigenous people will be very happy. Some day historians will discover many different peoples inhabited the valley before Tenaya's band, but to dismiss who they were and how they got there is disconcerting. Anyone living in the valley, at any time seeks peace, solace, protection and beauty. It is a special place beyond all others. They chose that, before they went back to the valley, it was empty because of disease. They braved going back, not knowing if death faced them because why???? Maybe because they loved it. Who knows, but the fact they did and fought to remain there deems something besides dismissal.

By the way, if your enemy lived all around you, you might not choose the easiest access, but the most difficult to follow and easiest to protect.



Edited 1 time(s). Last edit at 08/23/2009 06:10AM by mugstump.
Re: Yosemite's Chief Tenaya - What the Park wont tell you.
September 26, 2016 02:03AM
Today, there is intermarriage. We are all related. Dendrochronological research confirms that fires in Yosemite Valley were ignited by Indians. There has not been a lightning strike in Yosemite Valley since written fire records have been kept from 1930 to present. Fires were ignited by Indians, and opposing to what my common ancestor Chief Tenaya said, fire scars prove that fires were still ignited in Yosemite during this time of supposed abandonment. MFI (Mean Fire Intervals) actually decrease, meaning more fires were ignited in the southwestern portion of the valley after 1800 (Gassaway, 2009). Today Yosemite Indians are a mix of both and more. This argument of who were the actual first Indians of Yosemite is so old. Who knows what the first people 7000 to 14000 years ago called themselves? Yosemite Indians need healing. Colonization has the same effects on indigenous people around the world, high rates of suicide, rape, diabetes. We're not going to get healthier fighting each other. The National Park Service should acknowledge the histories of all the Indians associated with the parks. Interpretative signs need to be updated to include the Paiute history as well as Miwok.

Gassaway, Linn. "Native American fire patterns in Yosemite Valley: Archaeology, dendrochronology, subsistence, and culture change in the Sierra Nevada." Society for California Archaeology Proceedings 22 (2009): 1-19.
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